Physician Resources
Since pioneering RELIEF®, Vitruvia has partnered with the world’s leading medical, biomechanical and performance experts.

Wilke, J.; Macchi, V.; De Caro, R.; Stecco, C. Fascia thickness, aging and flexibility: Is there an association? J. Anat. 2019, 234, 43–49.

Kjaer, M. Role of extracellular matrix in adaptation of tendon and skeletal muscle to
mechanical loading. Physiol. Rev. 2004, 84, 649–698.

Benjamin, M. The fascia of the limbs and back—A review. J Anat. 2009, 214, 1–18.

Pavan, P.G.; Pachera, P.; Stecco, C.; Natali, A.N. Biomechanical behavior of human
crural fascia in anterior and posterior regions of the lower limb. Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 2015, 53, 951–959.

Pirri, C.;Fede, C.; Petrelli, L.; Guidolin, D.; Fan, C.; De Caro, R.; Stecco, C. An anatomical comparison of the fasciae of the thigh: A macroscopic, microscopic and ultrasound imaging study. J. Anat. 2020.

Derchi, L.; Rizzatto, G. Technical requirements. In Ultrasound of the Musculoskeletal System; Bianchi, S., Martinoli, C., Eds.; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2007; pp. 3–16.

Ahn, A.C.; Kaptchuk, T.J. Spatial anisotropy analyses of subcutaneous tissue layer: Potential insights into its biomechanical characteristics. J. Anat. 2011, 219, 515–524.

Pirri, C.; Fede, C.; Petrelli, L.; Guidolin, D.; Fan, C.; De Caro, R.; Stecco, C. An anatomical comparison of the fasciae of the thigh: A macroscopic, microscopic and ultrasound imaging study. J. Anat. 2020.

Stecco, C.; Pavan, P.; Pachera, P.; De Caro, R.; Natali, A. Investigation of the mechanical
properties of the human crural fascia and their possible clinical implications. Surg. Radiol. Anat. 2014, 36, 25–32.

Langevin, H.M.; Fox, J.R.; Koptiuch, C.; Badger, G.J.; Greenan-Naumann, A.C.; Bouffard, N.A.; Konofagou, E.E.; Lee, W.N.; Triano, J.J.; Henry, S.M. Reduced thoracolumbar fascia shear strain in human chronic low back pain. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2011, 12, 203.

Stecco, A.; Meneghini, A.; Stern, R.; Stecco, C.; Imamura, M. Ultrasonography in myofascial
neck pain: Randomized clinical trial for diagnosis and follow-up. Surg Radiol Anat. 2014, 36, 243–253.

Fede, C.; Gaudreault, N.; Fan, C.; Macchi, V.; De Caro, R.; Stecco, C. Morphometric and dynamic measurements of muscular fascia in healthy individuals using ultrasound imaging: A summary of the discrepancies and gaps in the current literature. Surg. Radiol Anat. 2018, 40, 1329–1341.

Wilke, J.; Macchi, V.; De Caro, R.; Stecco, C. Fascia thickness, aging and flexibility: Is there an association? J. Anat. 2019, 234, 43–49.

Pirri, C.; Stecco, C.; Fede, C.; Macchi, V.; Özçakar, L. Ultrasound Imaging of the Fascial Layers: You See (Only) What You Know. J. Ultrasound Med. 2020, 39, 827–828.

Stecco, C.; Stern, R.; Porzionato, A.; Macchi, V.; Masiero, S.; Stecco, A.; De Caro, R. Hyaluronan within fascia in the etiology of myofascial pain. Surg. Radiol. Anat. 2011, 33, 891–896.

Pirri, C.; Todros, S.; Fede, C.; Pianigiani, S.; Fan, C.; Foti, C.; Stecco, C.; Pavan, P. Inter-rater reliability and variability of ultrasound measurements of abdominal muscles and fasciae thickness. Clin Anat. 2019, 32, 948–960.

Nordez, A.; Gross, R.; Andrade, R.; Le Sant, G.; Freitas, S.; Ellis, R.; McNair, P.J.; Hug, F. Non-muscular structures can limit the maximal joint range of motion during stretching. Sports Med. 2017, 47, 1925–1929.